Wāhi Tuarima | Part 5
Ngā Take ā-rohe Me Ngā Kaupapa | Regional Issues and Policy
The sea was before
the land and the sky,
And where the sea
meets the lands
there are obligations
there that are
as binding as
those of whakapapa.
– Teone Taare Tikao
5.6 Tangaroa [TAN]
This section includes issues and policies related to the realm of Tangaroa, the atua of the sea. In the Ngāi Tahu tradition, Tangaroa was the ﬁrst husband of Papatūānuku.
As emphasized in the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement (2010), tāngata whenua have a traditional and continuing cultural relationship with areas of the coastal environment, including places where we have ﬁshed and lived for generations. The association of Ngāi Tahu to the Canterbury coast is acknowledged in the NTCSA 1998, whereby Te Tai o Mahaanui (the Selwyn Banks Peninsula Coastal Marine Area) and Te Tai o Marokura (the Kaikōura Coastal Marine Area) are recognised as coastal statutory acknowledgements (see Appendix 1 for a map). Te Tai o Mahaanui is also source of the name for this IMP, acknowledging the coastal waters and tides that unite the six Papatipu Rūnanga.
The RMA 1991 provides protection for the coastal environment and the relationship of Ngāi Tahu to it as a matter of national importance:
- Section 6 (a): The preservation and protection of the natural character of the coastal environment (including the coastal marine area), wetlands, and lakes and rivers and their margins;
- Section 6 (b): Protection of outstanding natural features and landscapes;
- Section 6 (e): the relationship of Māori and their culture and traditions with their ancestral lands, water, sites, wāhi tapu, and other taonga; and
- Section 6 (f): Protection of historic heritage.
Ngā Paetae | Objectives
(1) There is a diversity and abundance of mahinga kai in coastal areas, the resources are ﬁt for cultural use, and tāngata whenua have unhindered access to them.
(2) The role of tāngata whenua as kaitiaki of the coastal environment and sea is recognised and provided for in coastal and marine management.
(3) Discharges to the coastal marine area and the sea are eliminated, and the land practices that contribute to diﬀuse (non-point source) pollution of the coast and sea are discontinued or altered.
(4) Traditional and contemporary mahinga kai sites and species within the coastal environment, and access to those sites and species, are protected and enhanced.
(5) Mahinga kai have unhindered access between rivers, coastal wetlands, hāpua and the sea.
(6) The wāhi taonga status of coastal wetlands, hāpua and estuaries is recognised and provided for.
(7) The marine environment is protected by way of tikanga-based management of ﬁsheries.
(8) Coastal cultural landscapes and seascapes are protected from inappropriate use and development.
Ngā Take | Issues of Significance
TAN1: Statutory Acknowledgements
Issue TAN1: Recognition of the coastal Statutory Acknowledgements beyond the expiry of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement (Resource Management Consent Notiﬁcation) Regulations 1999.
TAN2: Coastal Water Quality
Issue TAN2: Coastal water quality in some areas of the takiwā is degraded or at risk as a result of:
(a) Direct discharges contaminants, including wastewater and stormwater;
(b) Diﬀuse pollution from rural and urban land use;
(c) Drainage and degradation of coastal wetlands; and
(d) The cumulative eﬀects of activities.
» Issue TAN3: Coastal wetlands, estuaries and hāpua
» General policy on water quality (Section 5.3 Issue WM6)
» General policy on waste management (Section 5.4 Issue P7)
» Section 6.4 (Waimakariri): Issue WAI1
» Section 6.6 (Whakaraupō): Issue WH1
» Section 6.8 (Akaroa): Issue A1
TAN3: Coastal wetlands, estuaries and hāpu
Issue TAN3: Protecting the ecological and cultural values of coastal wetlands, estuaries and hāpua.
Is water flowing into the sea surplus water?
For tāngata whenua, water flowing out to sea is not surplus water, or ‘wasted’ water; it is a crucial part of the water cycle. Floods and freshes play an important role in maintaining the shape and character of the river, cleansing, moving sediment, and opening the river mouth to allow native fish migration. When river flows are reduced, the riverine and coastal ecological processes and balance between fresh water and seawater also gets disrupted. Saline water may start intruding inwards, swallowing the beaches and eroding the coast.
CASE STUDY: Muriwai
Muriwai (Cooper’s Lagoon) is a remnant coastal wetland between Taumutu and the Rakaia River. Historically Muriwai joined Te Waihora to the east. It was a place where tāngata whenua caught tuna for manuhiri , and therefore had special value as mahinga kai. Under section 184 of the NTCSA 1998, Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu owns the bed of Muriwai fee simple. The decline of tuna populations in Muriwai is a concern for tāngata whenua, along with the effects of adjacent rural land use.
“…Muriwai is a very important place to tāngata whenua. This is place where we caught eels for the visitors (manuhiri). This place has changed now. There is silt in it now, and it is not as deep, and there are no more eels (except for the ones Fish and Game released in there).” Uncle Pat Nutira
“Mum used to go all the way down to Muriwai and spear eels down there. She used to be in water that was up
to her waist, and she used to have flax tied around her waist. And every time she speared the eels she used to string them up and they used to go along like that until they go about a dozen or more. And then they would come ashore. She would thread the flax through the hole underneath and string them up through their mouth. The eels at the Muriwai were different from the lake. They were sort of green belly eels, not like the silver-bellies that you get from the lake.” Taua Jane N. Wards (nee Martin).
“…the better eels were from Muriwai and the whitebait at Coopers Lagoon. When we used to go whitebaiting, we would drive the horse and cart down to the beach to Coopers Lagoon and go whitebaiting there, because the Lake wouldn’t be open at Lake Ellesmere. If the Lake was open, you could stand in our kitchen and look down at the Lake Opening… if the seagulls were dipping you knew to run your net down to the Lake, catch a feed, run home again and they would still be alive.” Aunty Ake Johnson
“…I liked it when fishing for tuna at Muriwai. The tuna there are a very special tuna with a different colour and even size. The skin was a golden colour different to the ordinary black eel. When we used the patu to kill the eels, it was important to strike just below the head as every useful part of the flesh should not be damaged. If it was marked or damaged these could be seen when you pawhara the eel. When served to manuhiri or given as a koha you wanted them to see the lovely golden colour of the flesh.” Ruku Arahanga
Sources: Interviews with kaumātua from Te Taumutu Rūnanga, in:
a) Te Taumutu Rūnanga and Te Waihora Eel Management Committee: Nature and Extent of the Customary Eel Fishery (D. O’Connell), and
b) the Te Taumutu Rūnanga Natural Resource Management Plan 2002.
» General policy on wetlands, waipuna and riparian margins (Section 5.3 Issue WM13)
TAN4: Tools to protect Customary Fisheries and the Marine Environment
Issue TAN4: Tikanga-based management tools for protecting and enhancing the marine environment and customary ﬁsheries.
Map 3: Mātaitai and Taiāpure reserves in the takiwā covered by this IMP
TAN5: Foreshore and Seabed
Issue TAN5: There remains a lack of appropriate statutory recognition for customary rights and interests associated with the foreshore and seabed.
Marine and Coastal Area (Takutai Moana) Act 2010
“The new Marine and Coastal Area (Takutai Moana) Bill is not the fair and just solution we hoped for and it is a solemn day for us. While the Bill may look different in places, it will not make practical differences for Iwi or the nation. This Bill screws the scrum for Iwi because the tests for rights recognition are near impossible for most Iwi to meet. For the whole nation, this Bill will not improve how our coastal marine area is safe guarded for future generations.”
Source: Mark Solomon, Kaiwhakahaere of Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu. Ngāi Tahu media release. March 24, 2011.
TAN6: Coastal and Marine Cultural Heritage
Issue TAN6: The protection of coastal and marine based cultural heritage values, including cultural landscapes and seascapes.
» Issue TAN7: Coastal land use and development
» Issue TAN8: Access to coastal environments
» General Policy on cultural landscapes (Section 5.8, Issue CL1)
TAN7: Coastal Land Use and Development
Issue TAN7: Coastal land use and development can have eﬀects on Ngāi Tahu values and the environment.
» Issue TAN5: Foreshore and Seabed
» Issue TAN 8: Access to coastal environments
» General policies in Section 5.8 – Issue CL1: Cultural landscapes; and Issue CL3: Wāhi tapu me wāhi taonga
» General policy on subdivision and development (Section 5.4 Issue P4)
TAN8: Access to Coastal Environment
Issue TAN8: Ngāi Tahu access to the coastal marine area and customary resources has been reduced and degraded over time.
» General policy on access to wāhi tapu and wāhi taonga (Section 5.8 Issue CL5)
TAN9: Offshore Oil Exploration
Issue TAN9: Is there appropriate environmental policy in place to protect the realm of Tangaroa from effects associated with offshore petroleum exploration and mining?
» General policy on mining and quarrying (Section 5.4 Issue P13)
Issue TAN10: Papatipu Rūnanga have specific rights and interests associated with where and how aquaculture takes place.
» Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu 2002. Defining Aquaculture Management Areas From a Ngāi Tahu Perspective. Report prepared for Environment Canterbury.
» Crengle, D. 2000, with Te Rūnanga o Onuku, Wairewa Rūnanga and Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu. Akaroa Harbour Marine Farms Cultural Impact Assessment.
TAN11: Beached Marine Mammals
Issue TAN11: Freedom camping is having effects on the environment and Ngā Tahu values
» Draft Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu Marine Mammal Protocol (2004). http://www.Ngāitahu.iwi.nz/Ngāi- Tahu-Whanui/Natural-Environment/Environmental-Policy-Planning/Guidelines-For-Beached-Marine-Mammals.php
» Interim Guidelines for the Initial Notification and Contact between the Department of Conservation and Ngāi Tahu over Beached Marine Mammals (2004). http://www.Ngāitahu.iwi.nz/Ngāi-Tahu-Whanui/ Natural-Environment/Environmental-Policy-Planning/ Guidelines-For-Beached-Marine-Mammals.php
TAN12: Freedom Camping
Issue TAN12: Freedom camping is having effects on the environment and Ngā Tahu values
END NOTES / REFERENCES
Decision of Hearing Commissioners for consents to discharge treated wastewater to Whakaraupō (2010, para 209).
The information and polices in this section are based on the Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu submission on the Marine and Coastal Area (Takutai Moana) Bill 2010 (November 2010), and the document Ngāi Tahu Whānui Positions On the Crown’s Proposed Foreshore and Seabed Replacement Framework, prepared by Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu.
Evison, H. and Adams, M. 1993. Land of memories: A contemporary view of places of historical significance in the South Island of New Zealand, p.23
Ngāi Tahu Sea Fisheries Report 1991, 3.79.
Te Whakatau Kaupapa p. 4-19.