5.8 Ngā Tūtohu Whenua
Wāhi Tuarima | Part 5
Ngā Take ā-rohe Me Ngā Kaupapa | Regional Issues and Policy
5.8 Ngā Tūtohu Whenua | Cultural Landscapes [CL]
This section addresses issues associated with Ngāi Tahu cultural heritage: sites, places, resources, traditions, knowledge, and landscapes of importance to Ngāi Tahu. This includes wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga, mahinga kai and other sites of signiﬁcance, and the traditional and contemporary landscapes within which they occur. For Ngāi Tahu cultural heritage isn’t something that happened in the past; but rather a reﬂection of an ongoing and enduring relationship with the land.
Ngā tūtohu whenua, or cultural landscapes, is a concept used in this IMP to recognise areas and places of particular importance. As a planning tool, cultural landscapes are a culturally meaningful and eﬀective framework for the identiﬁcation, protection and management of sites and places of signiﬁcance, the multiple values associated with those sites and places, and the relationship of tāngata whenua to them.
The RMA 1991 instructs local authorities, in relation to managing the use, development and protection of natural and physical resources, to recognise and provide for the following matters of national importance:
- The protection of historic heritage from inappropriate subdivision, use and development (s.6 (f)).
- The protection of outstanding natural features and landscapes from inappropriate subdivision, use and development (s.6 (b)). The courts have used this as a mechanism to consider cultural landscapes of historical importance.
- The relationship of Māori and their culture and traditions with their ancestral lands, water, sites, wāhi tapu and other taonga (s.6 (e)).
Ngā Paetae | Objectives
(1) Cultural landscapes are recognised and provided for as a planning tool to protect wāhi tapu and wāhi taonga, the multiple values associated with these sites and places (traditional and contemporary), and the relationship of tāngata whenua to them.
(2) The Ngāi Tahu cultural heritage mapping project is completed and used to eﬀectively protect and manage wāhi tapu and wāhi taonga in a manner consistent with tikanga Ngāi Tahu.
(3) Wāhi tapu and wāhi taonga are protected from inappropriate use, subdivision and development.
(4) Ngāi Tahu whānui have access to sites of cultural signiﬁcance in the takiwā.
(5) Good working relationships are maintained with those agencies involved in the protection of Ngāi Tahu cultural and historic heritage, including the New Zealand Historic Places Trust Pouhere Taonga (NZHPT).
Ngā Take | Issues of Significance
CL1: Recognising Cultural Landscapes
Issue CL1: Ngā Tūtohu Whenua –
(a) There is a need for culturally appropriate tools to identify and express the relationship of tāngata whenua with particular places, and the values that deﬁne that relationship;
(b) Land use and development can have both positive and adverse eﬀects on cultural landscapes;
(c) An RMA focus on outstanding landscapes and outstanding natural features can mean that cultural landscapes are not recognised in planning and policy;
(d) Enhancement and restoration of cultural landscapes is important to Ngāi Tahu culture, identity and well being.
Te Aranga: Māori Cultural Landscape Strategy
- As Māori we have a unique sense of our cultural landscape. It includes past, present and future. It includes both physical and spiritual dimensions.
- It is how we express ourselves in our environment, it connects whānau and whenua through whakapapa, it includes both urban and rural, it is not just where we live it is who we are!
- The Māori Cultural Landscape Strategy is a strategy which enables us to work collaboratively to enhance our cultural landscapes so we can better see our faces in our places!
Source: Te Aranga: Māori Cultural Landscape Strategy – www.tearanga.maori.nz
» Issue CL2: Ngāi Tahu Cultural Mapping
» Issue CL3: Protection of wāhi tapu me wāhi taonga
» Issue CL5: Access to wāhi tapu and wāhi taonga
» Issue CL7: Ngāi Tahu tikanga tūturu
» Appendix 2 – NZAA sites from the Hurunui to the Hakatere
» NZHPT (2012). Heritage Guidance for Iwi Management Plans: A guide for Māori working in resource management and planning. [Appendix 1 of this document provides an excellent summary of legislative frameworks for Māori heritage, including further information on the methods identified in Policy CL1.7 above).
CL2: Cultural Mapping
Issue CL2: There is a need for a comprehensive and accurate source of information on sites of signiﬁcance, and a tool to protect and manage these sites according to tikanga Ngāi Tahu.
Maps 4 and 5: Ngāi Tahu culturally significant zones in the Kaiapoi and Christchurch Red Zones (Interim land management options map prepared by Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu). These maps are an example of how cultural mapping work can be used to inform planning maps and decision making.
CL3: Wāhi tapu me wāhi taonga
Issue CL3: Identiﬁcation, protection and management of wāhi tapu and wāhi taonga.
CL4: Silent Files
Issue CL4: There are a number of challenges associated with the use of silent ﬁles to protect wāhi tapu, including:
(a) Silent ﬁles are a useful mechanism, but are not the complete representation of wāhi tapu in the takiwā; and
(b) There are diﬃculties with using and translating the silent ﬁle mechanism in planning and policy, including the lack of speciﬁc information provided to external agencies on the nature of these sites, and discrepancies between planning documents as to the location and extent of silent ﬁle areas.
Ngā Kaupapa / Policy
CL4.1 Silent ﬁles remain an appropriate mechanism for protecting sites of signiﬁcance, but are not limited to those identiﬁed on planning maps in this IMP or otherwise.
Information on wāhi tapu and wāhi taonga
CL4.2 There are many wāhi tapu that are not identiﬁed as silent ﬁles, and this must be recognised and provided for in central, territorial and regional planning processes.
CL4.3 To ensure the location of silent ﬁles in district and regional planning maps is consistent with the schedule of maps included in Appendix 6 of this IMP.
CL4.4 The Silent File designation means that:
(a) There must be a high level of engagement with Papatipu Rūnanga to assess whether the location, type and scale of proposed activities may adversely eﬀect the values associated with the Silent File area;
(b) The Papatipu Rūnanga shall have a high level of inﬂuence over decisions to grant or decline consents. Only tāngata whenua can determine whether a development will aﬀect silent ﬁle value; and
(c) The Papatipu Rūnanga shall not be required to justify the nature and extent of cultural eﬀects, or why an activity may be inconsistent with values in a Silent File area. Tāngata whenua must be able to “say no” without revealing the location or status of a site.
CL4.5 A high level of engagement, as per Policy CL4.4(a), means provisions for some or all of the following:
(a) Early consultation with Papatipu Rūnanga as an information requirement for resource consent applications;
(b) Aﬀected party status;
(c) Cultural Impact Assessment (CIA);
(d) Cultural monitoring; and
(e) Archaeological assessment (see Policy CL3.8).
Assessment of silent ﬁle mechanism
CL4.6 To undertake an internal Papatipu Rūnanga assessment of existing silent ﬁles, to evaluate:
(a) Existing knowledge of site;
(b) Ongoing relevance/importance of site;
(c) Need for additional silent ﬁle designations;
(d) Whether the silent ﬁle mechanism is achieving its purpose; and
(e) Whether there are alternative tools available.
He Kupu Whakamāhukihuki / Explanation
Silent ﬁles remain an appropriate tool to protect sites of signiﬁcance in the takiwā. Silent ﬁles are used to protect cultural important sites, often urupā or other wāhi tapu sites. Rather than identifying an exact location, a silent ﬁle gives a general indication and identiﬁcation of the location of a site.
There is a need for an authoritative source of information on the locations and extent of silent ﬁle areas in the takiwā. There are currently a number of discrepancies between silent ﬁle maps in various planning documents. including district and city plans. For example, in some district planning maps, speciﬁc silent ﬁles are either missing, or diﬀer from Te Whakatau Kaupapa: the Ngāi Tahu Resource Management Strategy for the Canterbury Region (1990) with regard to size and the area covered. Appendix 6 provides an schedule of maps showing the location and boundaries of silent ﬁles in the takiwā.
The occurrence of a silent ﬁle does not necessarily mean that Ngāi Tahu will oppose an activity. The importance of a silent ﬁle is that is trigger for a high level of engagement with tāngata whenua. Some activities may be acceptable near or adjacent to a silent ﬁle area, if the activity is consistent with protecting the values that the silent ﬁle is protecting. It is also important to recognise that there are numerous wāhi tapu that are not formally identiﬁed as silent ﬁles.
Issue CL5: Access to wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and general places of cultural importance.
» General policy on overseas investment and purchase of land (Section 5.4, Issue P19)
CL6: Ingoa Wāhi
Issue CL6: Increasing the use of traditional ingoa wāhi on the landscape.
CL7: Ngā Tahu Tikanga Tūturu
Issue CL7: The use and interpretation of Māori cultural traditions, tikanga, values, language and symbols in the takiwā of Ngāi Tahu.
Issue CL8: Recognising and providing for the relationship of Ngāi Tahu to maunga.
» Issue CL7: Ngāi Tahu tikanga tūturu
END NOTES / REFERENCES
NZ Marine Hatcheries v Marlborough District Council W129/97, as described in: Heritage Management Guidelines for Resource
Management Practitioners (Historic Places Trust, 2004).
Te Whakatau Kaupapa, 1990: 4-31.
Crengle, H. with Te Rūnanga o Kaikoura, Te Rūnanga o Tuahuriri and Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, 2002. Hurunui River Tangata Whenua Values Report. Environment Canterbury Report R02/23.
“Kā mauka”, In: Hikoi Whakawhānaukataka, Wāhaka Tuatahi, Te Rohe o Wairewa. Document compiled by I. Cranwell and M. Wakefield, 2008.